Dette er en fortsettelse på en serie, begynnelsen finner du her
Catherine Eddowes, Grafitti og Falske Spor
Catherine Eddowes (AKA Kate Kelly, AKA Kate Eddowes) var opprinnelig fra Wolverhampton. Flere i familien Eddowes gikk til fots til London under den store tinngruvestreiken i 1848. Catherine er beskrevet som intelligent og belest, pen av utseende og munter, men med temperament. Hun gikk på St. John's Charity School inntil hennes mor døde i 1884. De fleste av barna i familien blir så plassert i arbeidshus, men Catherine er heldig og får flytte inn hos en tante i Wolverhampon, og fortsetter utdannelsen ved Dowgate Charity School. Dette tyder på at hun hadde evner utenom det vanlige, det var ikke alle forunt med skolegang i hennes sosiale lag.21 år gammel slår Catherine seg sammen med en bekjent, Thomas Conway, og de lever av å selge bøker og selvkomponerte ballader. Det er ukjent om de to var gift, men de hadde tre barn. I 1880 skiller de lag, hennes søster, Elizabeth Fisher, forklarte: - "My sister left Conway because he treated her badly. He did not drink regularly, but when he drew his pension they went out together, and it generally ended with his beating her."I 1881 møtte Catherine John Kelly, og de flyttet inn sammen i Cooney's Lodging House, Whitechapel. Bestyreren hadde følgende å si om Catherine: -"[she] was not often in drink and was a very jolly woman, often singing. She was generally in the lodging house for the night between 9 and 10 PM. She wasn't in the habit of walking the streets and he had never heard of or seen her being intimate with anyone other than Kelly."John Kelly uttalte også at han ikke hadde kjennskap til at hun "walked the streets" (slang for prostitusjon). Til tider kunne hun drikke litt for mye, men det var skjelden. En søster, Eliza Gold, vitnet også om at Catherine normalt drakk lite.Catherine Eddowes var med andre ord ikke det en kan kalle en prostituert eller drukkenbolt. Alikevel skulle hun møte Jack the Ripper søndag 30 september 1888, 46 år gammel.Kelly og Eddowes pleide å arbeide med å plukke humle i sesongen (I likhet med Annie Chapman). Dette året fikk de ikke jobb, og returnerte til London nærmest pengelens 28. september. Catherine ba Kelly kjøpe seg en seng i et herberge, mens hun ville forsøke å få en seng ved the Casual Ward, Shoe Lane. Hun var kjent der fra før, og bestyreren gav følgende forklaring til politiet; Eddowes hadde ikke vært innom på lang tid, men var godt kjent. Hun forklarte at hun ikke fikk jobb med å plukke humle, og sa videre: -"I have come back to earn the reward offered for the apprehension of the Whitechapel murderer. I think I know him". Bestyreren advarte henne mot å bli det neste offeret, - "Oh, no fear of that!", svarte hun.Lørdag 29. - søndag 30. september:08.00AM: Eddowes er innom Cooney's Lodging House, og prater med Kelly. Han bestemmer seg for å pantsette et par støvler han har. Eddowes pantsetter dem under navnet Jane Kelly. De kjøper seg mat for pengene, og blir sett mens de spiser mellom klokken 10.00 og 11.00AM.02.00PM: Eddowes sier hun vil forsøke å få noe penger av sin søster i Bermondsey. Hun lover å være borte ikke mer enn to timer. Det er det siste Kelly ser til henne.08.00PM: Catherine blir arrestert i Aldgate High Street for drukkenskap. Hun blir tatt med til Bishopsgate politistasjon og satt i fyllearresten. Hun oppgir sitt navn som: "Nothing".12.30AM: Catherine roper ut spørsmål om når hun skal bli løslatt. Betjenten på vakt svarer: -"When you are capable of taking care of yourself" . -"I can do that now", svarer Catherine. 12.55AM: Catherine blir ansett for å være edru, og blir løslatt av betjent Hutt. Hun oppgir sitt navn som Mary Ann Kelly.01.00AM: Catherine forlater politistasjonen.-"What time is it?" spør hun betjent Hutt.-"Too late for you to get anything to drink", svarer han.-"I shall get a damn fine hiding when I get home."-"And serve you right, you had no right to get drunk."Hutt åpner døren for henne.-"This way missus," he says, "please pull it to."-"All right" svarer Catherine, uten å lukke døren etter seg, -"Goodnight, old cock."Hun går til venstre, som er motsatt vei til "hjemme", men i retning av Aldgate Street, hvor hun ble arrestert.01.35AM: Joseph Lawende, Joseph Hyam Levy, og Henry Harris, forlater Imperial Club ved 16-17 Duke Street. På hjørnet av Duke Street og Church Passage - som leder mot Mitre Square, ser de Eddowes snakke med en mann. Hun holder hånden på brystet hans, men situasjonen virker ikke truende. Snarere virker det som om hun snakker med en bekjent. Lawende beskriver senere mannen: "30 years old, 5 foot 7 inches tall, fair complexion and mustache with a medium build. He is wearing a pepper and salt colored jacket which fits loosely, gray cloth cap with a peak of the same color. He has a reddish handkerchief knotted around his neck. Over all he gives the appearance of being a sailor."01.45AM, PC Watkins, på sin rutinemessige patrulje, finner Eddowes drept i et hjørne av Mitre Square. Området er relativt tungt patruljert, men nok en gang unnslipper Jack inn i natten.
Dr. Fredrick Gordon Brown ankommer åstedet om lag 02.00AM. Hans beskrivelse er som følger:
"The body was on its back, the head turned to left shoulder. The arms by the side of the body as if they had fallen there. Both palms upwards, the fingers slightly bent. The left leg extended in a line with the body. The abdomen was exposed. Right leg bent at the thigh and knee. The throat cut across.
The intestines were drawn out to a large extent and placed over the right shoulder -- they were smeared over with some feculent matter. A piece of about two feet was quite detached from the body and placed between the body and the left arm, apparently by design. The lobe and auricle of the right ear were cut obliquely through. There was a quantity of clotted blood on the pavement on the left side of the neck round the shoulder and upper part of arm, and fluid blood-coloured serum which had flowed under the neck to the right shoulder, the pavement sloping in that direction. Body was quite warm. No death stiffening had taken place. She must have been dead most likely within the half hour.
We looked for superficial bruises and saw none. No blood on the skin of the abdomen or secretion of any kind on the thighs. No spurting of blood on the bricks or pavement around. No marks of blood below the middle of the body. Several buttons were found in the clotted blood after the body was removed. There was no blood on the front of the clothes. There were no traces of recent connexion.
When the body arrived at Golden Lane, some of the blood was dispersed through the removal of the body to the mortuary. The clothes were taken off carefully from the body. A piece of deceased's ear dropped from the clothing. I made a post mortem examination at half past two on Sunday afternoon. Rigor mortis was well marked; body not quite cold. Green discoloration over the abdomen. After washing the left hand carefully, a bruise the size of a sixpence, recent and red, was discovered on the back of the left hand between the thumb and first finger. A few small bruises on right shin of older date. The hands and arms were bronzed. No bruises on the scalp, the back of the body, or the elbows.
The face was very much mutilated. There was a cut about a quarter of an inch through the lower left eyelid, dividing the structures completely through. The upper eyelid on that side, there was a scratch through the skin on the left upper eyelid, near to the angle of the nose. The right eyelid was cut through to about half an inch. There was a deep cut over the bridge of the nose, extending from the left border of the nasal bone down near the angle of the jaw on the right side of the cheek. This cut went into the bone and divided all the structures of the cheek except the mucuous membrane of the mouth. The tip of the nose was quite detached by an oblique cut from the bottom of the nasal bone to where the wings of the nose join on to the face. A cut from this divided the upper lip and extended through the substance of the gum over the right upper lateral incisor tooth. About half an inch from the top of the nose was another oblique cut. There was a cut on the right angle of the mouth as if the cut of a point of a knife. The cut extended an inch and a half, parallel with the lower lip. There was on each side of cheek a cut which peeled up the skin, forming a triangular flap about an inch and a half. On the left cheek there were two abrasions of the epithelium under the left ear. The throat was cut across to the extent of about six or seven inches. A superficial cut commenced about an inch and a half below the lobe below, and about two and a half inches behind the left ear, and extended across the throat to about three inches below the lobe of the right ear.
The big muscle across the throat was divided through on the left side. The large vessels on the left side of the neck were severed. The larynx was severed below the vocal chord. All the deep structures were severed to the bone, the knife marking intervertebral cartilages. The sheath of the vessels on the right side was just opened. The cartoid artery had a fine hole opening, the internal jugular vein was opened about an inch and a half -- not divided. The blood vessels contained clot. All these injuries were performed by a sharp instrument like a knife, and pointed. The cause of death was hemorrhage from the left common cartoid artery.
The death was immediate and the mutilations were inflicted after death. We examined the abdomen. The front walls were laid open from the breast bones to the pubes. The cut commenced opposite the enciform cartilage. The incision went upwards, not penetrating the skin that was over the sternum. It then divided the enciform cartilage. The knife must have cut obliquely at the expense of that cartilage. Behind this, the liver was stabbed as if by the point of a sharp instrument. Below this was another incision into the liver of about two and a half inches, and below this the left lobe of the liver was slit through by a vertical cut. Two cuts were shewn by a jagging of the skin on the left side. The abdominal walls were divided in the middle line to within a quarter of an inch of the navel. The cut then took a horizontal course for two inches and a half towards the right side. It then divided round the navel on the left side, and made a parallel incision to the former horizontal incision, leaving the navel on a tongue of skin. Attached to the navel was two and a half inches of the lower part of the rectus muscle on the left side of the abdomen. The incision then took an oblique direction to the right and was shelving. The incision went down the right side of the vagina and rectum for half an inch behind the rectum. There was a stab of about an inch on the left groin. This was done by a pointed instrument. Below this was a cut of three inches going through all tissues making a wound of the peritoneum about the same extent. An inch below the crease of the thigh was a cut extending from the anterior spine of the ilium obliquely down the inner side of the left thigh and separating the left labium, forming a flap of skin up to the groin. The left rectus muscle was not detached. There was a flap of skin formed by the right thigh, attaching the right labium, and extending up to the spine of the ilium. The muscles on the right side inserted into the frontal ligaments were cut through. The skin was retracted through the whole of the cut through the abdomen, but the vessels were not clotted. Nor had there been any appreciable bleeding from the vessels.
I draw the conclusion that the act was made after death, and there would not have been much blood on the murderer. The cut was made by someone on the right side of the body, kneeling below the middle of the body.
I removed the content of the stomach and placed it in a jar for further examination. There seemed very little in it in the way of food or fluid, but from the cut end partly digested farinaceous food escaped. The intestines had been detached to a large extent from the mesentery. About two feet of the colon was cut away. The signoid flexure was invaginated into the rectum very tightly. Right kidney was pale, bloodless with slight congestion of the base of the pyramids. There was a cut from the upper part of the slit on the under surface of the liver to the left side, and another cut at right angles to this, which were about an inch and a half deep and two and a half inches long. Liver itself was healthy. The gall bladder contained bile. The pancreas was cut, but not through, on the left side of the spinal column. Three and a half inches of the lower border of the spleen by half an inch was attached only to the peritoneum. The peritoneal lining was cut through on the left side and the left kidney carefully taken out and removed. The left renal artery was cut through. I would say that someone who knew the position of the kidney must have done it.
The lining membrane over the uterus was cut through. The womb was cut through horizontally, leaving a stump of three quarters of an inch. The rest of the womb had been taken away with some of the ligaments. The vagina and cervix of the womb was uninjured. The bladder was healthy and uninjured, and contained three or four ounces of water. There was a tongue-like cut through the anterior wall of the abdominal aorta. The other organs were healthy. There were no indications of connexion. I believe the wound in the throat was first inflicted. I believe she must have been lying on the ground. The wounds on the face and abdomen prove that they were inflicted by a sharp, pointed knife, and that in the abdomen by one six inches or longer. I believe the perpetrator of the act must have had considerable knowledge of the position of the organs in the abdominal cavity and the way of removing them. It required a great deal of medical knowledge to have removed the kidney and to know where it was placed. The parts removed would be of no use for any professional purpose. I think the perpetrator of this act had sufficient time, or he would not have nicked the lower eyelids. It would take at least five minutes. I cannot assign any reason for the parts being taken away.
I feel sure that there was no struggle, and believe it was the act of one person. The throat had been so instantly severed that no noise could have been emitted. I should not expect much blood to have been found on the person who had inflicted these wounds. The wounds could not have been self-inflicted.
My attention was called to the apron, particularly the corner of the apron with a string attached. The blood spots were of recent origin. I have seen the portion of an apron produced by Dr. Phillips and stated to have been found in Goulston Street. It is impossible to say that it is human blood on the apron. I fitted the piece of apron, which had a new piece of material on it (which had evidently been sewn on to the piece I have), the seams of the borders of the two actually corresponding. Some blood and apparently faecal matter was found on the portion that was found in Goulston Street."
Blant eiendelene Catherine hadde på seg var det et dyrt sigarett-etui.
Igjen hadde Jack brukt god tid på sine "funny little games", invollene var løftet ut og plassert over høyre skulder, ansiktet var vansiret, en nyre og livmoren var fjernet. En bit av Catherine's forkle var skåret av, og ble funnet ti minutters gange fra Mitre Square, i Goulston Street.
02.20AM: PC Long, finner det blodige forklestykket i en trappeoppgang til Wentworth Model Dwellings. Like over står det skrevet i kritt med små, sirlige bokstaver:
"The Juwes are the men That Will not be Blamed for nothing."
Goulston Street var innenfor Metropolitan Police's jurisdiksjon, mens Mitre Square var City Police's område. Inspektør Halse (City) ønsket å avfotografere grafittien, men ble blankt avvist av Superintendent Arnold (Met) og Police Commissioner Warren. Disse blandet seg personlig inn, og krevde at beskjeden ble vasket bort umiddelbart.I et brev til Home office, avslører Warren at formålet med å vaske bort grafittien var å avverge opptøyer mot jødene:6 November 1888 4 Whitehall Place, S.W. 6th November 1888 Confidential The Under Secretary of State The Home Office Sir, In reply to your letter of the 5th instant, I enclose a report of the circumstances of the Mitre Square Murder so far as they have come under the notice of the Metropolitan Police, and I now give an account regarding the erasing the writing on the wall in Goulston Street which I have already partially explained to Mr. Matthews verbally. On the 30th September on hearing of the Berner Street murder, after visiting Commercial Street Station I arrived at Leman Street Station shortly before 5 A.M. and ascertained from the Superintendant Arnold all that was known there relative to the two murders.The most pressing question at that moment was some writing on the wall in Goulston Street evidently written with the intention of inflaming the public mind against the Jews, and which Mr. Arnold with a view to prevent serious disorder proposed to obliterate, and had sent down an Inspector with a sponge for that purpose, telling him to await his arrival.
I considered it desirable that I should decide the matter myself, as it was one involving so great a responsibility whether any action was taken or not. I accordingly went down to Goulston Street at once before going to the scene of the murder: it was just getting light, the publica would be in the streets in a few minutes, in a neighbourhood verymuch crowded on Sunday mornings by Jewsih vendors and Christian purchasers from all parts of London.
There were several Police around the spot when I arrived, both Metropolitan and City. The writing was on the jamb of the open archway or doorway visible in the street and could not be covered up without danger of the covering being torn off at once.
A discussion took place whether the writing could be left covered up or otherwise or whether any portion of it could be left for an hour until it could be photographed; but after taking into consideration the excited state of the population in London generally at the time, the strong feeling which had been excited against the Jews, and the fact that in a short time there would be a large concourse of the people in the streets, and having before me the Report that if it was left there the house was likely to be wrecked (in which from my own observation I entirely concurred) I considered it desirable to obliterate the writing at once, having taken a copy of which I enclose a duplicate.
After having been to the scene of the murder, I went on to the City Police Office and informed the Chief Superintendant of the reason why the writing had been obliterated. I may mention that so great was the feeling with regard to the Jews that on the 13th ulto. the Acting Chief Rabbi wrote to me on the subject of the spelling of the word "Jewes" on account of a newspaper asserting that this was Jewish spelling in the Yiddish dialect. He added "in the present state of excitement it is dangerous to the safety of the poor Jews in the East [End] to allow such an assertion to remain uncontradicted. My community keenly appreciates your humane and vigilant action during this critical time."
It may be realised therefore if the safety of the Jews in Whitechapel could be considered to be jeopardised 13 days after the murder by the question of the spelling of the word Jews, what might have happened to the Jews in that quarter had that writing been left intact. I do not hesitate myself to say that if that writing had been left there would have have been an onslaught upon the Jews, property would have been wrecked, and lives would probably have been lost; and I was much gratified with the prompitude with which Superintendent Arnold was prepared to act in the matter if I had not been there.
I have no doubt myself whatever that one of the principal objects of the Reward offered by Mr. Montagu was to shew to the world that the Jews were desirous of having the Hanbury Street Murder cleared up, and thus to divert from them the very strong feeling which was then growing up.
I am, Sir, Your most obediant Servant, (signed) C. WarrenIngen umiddelbar etterforskning ble iverksatt i Wentworth Model Dwellings.Vurdering: Hva gjorde Catherine Eddowes i timene før hun ble arrestert? Hvor fikk hun penger til å drikke fra? Hvorfor drakk hun i det hele tatt? Hvorfor gav hun opp prosjektet med å dra over til søsteren for å låne penger? Hvorfor dro hun ikke hjem etter å ha blitt løslatt?Min vurdering er at Eddowes kjente Jack. Jeg betviler at hun visste at han var Jack the Ripper, jeg tror utsagnet om at hun skulle få dusøren var basert på spøk eller en slags ønsketenkning. Jack the Ripper var på alles lepper den høsten.Jeg tror Eddowes møtte Jack, som var en bekjent. Jeg tror de kom i snakk, og at hun nevnte pengeproblemene. Jack, som den manipulerende psykopat som han var, sjarmerer henne i senk som den store redningsmannen. Han gir henne sigarett-etuiet, og mener hun kan pante det - så slipper hun å låne penger. Han overtaler henne til en tur "på byen", de drikker seg fulle - eller ihvertfall gjør Catherine det - og de avtales å møtes senere på kvelden. Jack har nemlig planer. Kanskje lokker han henne med penger. Uansett, Jack er en venn - en velgjører - en gentlemann...i Catherines øyne.Dette scenarioet forklarer hvorfor Eddowes gjør noe så utypisk som å drikke seg full. Det forklarer hva hun bruker tiden på. Det forklarer hvorfor hun møter Jack ved Mitre Square midt på natten. Catherine Eddowes var ikke dum. Hun var ikke prostituert. Hun ville ikke gått med på å møte hvem som helst midt på natten - spesiellt ikke mens the Ripper var løs.Jack har nå lagt alt til rette for "The Double Event". Om lag 40 minutter etter han har planlagt å drepe Long Liz Stride har han nå en avtale med sitt neste offer. Intet er overlatt til tilfeldighetene.Liz ble drept utenfor en jødisk ekstremistisk klubb. Mitre Square er en hellig plass for jødene i London. Allerede i 1690 anla Ashkenasi-miljøene i London Den Store Synagoge i Broad Court, Mitre Square. Området var hellig også for 1888-tallets jødiske bosetning.Men lenken opp mot Berner Street Club er sterkere enn at de begge er knyttet til jødene. Det ble foretatt politiske marsjer og demonstrasjoner knyttet til Berner Street Club's miljø og de mer moderate "Synagoge" miljøene. Marsjene hadde tre knutepunkter: Berner Street - Mitre Square - Goulston Street.Er det da en tilfeldighet at Jack la igjen et viktig spor nettopp i Goulston Street?Oddsene for tilfeldigheter begynner å bli små.Min vurdering er at Jack ønsket å legge skylden for de bestialske drapene på de jødiske miljøene. Trenden hadde vært der helt fra ryktene om "Leather Apron". I sin nåværende form var planen enkel, men genial. Ryktene gikk allerede. To drap på en kveld knyttet til jødiske miljøer i en trilogi av åsteder, en voldsom politietterforskning knyttet til Berner Street Club og Wentworth Model Dwellings - et kjent ghetto-område for jøder - resultatet var gitt.Og alikevel gikk det ikke slik Jack ønsket. Etterforskningen i Berner Street rettet seg ikke mot den anarkistiske klubben - Ingen personer ble arrestert eller avhørt i Goulston Street. Grafittien ble vasket bort. Som ved et mirakel dysset politiet ned mistanken mot en jødisk drapsmann. Til tross for en "tilståelse": "The Juwes are the men that will not be blamed for nothing.", eller: Jødene er mennene som ikke blir beskyldt for ingenting - i betydningen de blir beskyldt, men ikke uten grunn, de er også skyldige.Politiet ble ikke lurt. I det hele tatt er det som om nøkkelpersoner allerede er briefet på hvordan en skal forholde seg. Effektivt dysses sammenhengen ned, effektivt blander den øverste ledelse seg inn og trumfer igjennom ødeleggelsen av bevis. I ettertid angir de årsaken å være et ønske om å unngå opptøyer.Jack ønsket opptøyer. Jack visste at bare kraftige opptøyer gir spillerom for politiske revolusjoner. Jack ønsket en revolusjon. Jack ønsket anarki - falitt for samfunnet - en ny fremtid. Og han var villig til å gå over lik for å få det han ville ha. Jack var den tidens Al-Qaida. Terrorist. Med et politisk mål.Men politiet hadde gjennomskuet ham. Eller de. For det er svært sannsynlig at flere var involvert i konspirasjonen "Jack the Ripper" - selv om kanskje bare en var mannen med den sylkvasse kniven...Politiet hadde gjennomskuet Jack fordi de sannsynligvis hadde vært oppmerksom på gruppen hans før mordserien begynte. Konspirasjonen var svært sannsynlig allerede under overvåking selv før planen tok form. Anarkistiske miljøer var under overvåking, ikke minst på grunn av the Fenians, Irske terrorister som i 1880-tallets inkarnasjon het det Irske Republikanske Brorskap, og som senere utviklet seg til det vi kaller Óglaigh na hÉireann, bedre kjent som IRA.Politiets "Dream Team": Frederick George Abberline, Thomas Arnold (mannen som visket bort grafittien), og Stephen White , var alle tungt inne i Ripper-saken. Alle tre hadde arbeidet sammen før - beviselig minst ved en anledning, i 1885, da de anholdt to irske terrorister ansvarlige for "The Tower of London Bombings". Ifølge offentlige dokumenter ble de "rewarded and commended by the Home Office" for sin innsats. Ved denne anledning var de alle ansatt ved "Secret Irish Branch", antiterror- avdelingen med spesialområde irsk motstandskamp.Vi husker at Abberline ble overført til Ripper-saken på et tidlig tidspunkt som "ordinær" etterforsker. Var det for at han lettere skulle kunne involvere seg i saken offisiellt uten samtidig å avsløre at "Special Service" var involvert?Hvor mange andre hemmeligheter fantes det? Hvor mange spor ble i virkeligheten sopt under teppet?Jack var utmanøvrert. Men ikke satt ut av spill. Mediaoppmerksomhet var fremdeles the name of the game.16. oktober mottok George Lusk, presidenten av the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee, en privat komite som arrangerte spaning på gatene etter Jack The Ripper, et brev:From hell. Mr Lusk,
Sor I send you half the Kidne I took from one woman and prasarved it for you tother piece I fried and ate it was very nise. I may send you the bloody knif that took it out if you only wate a whil longer
signed Catch me when you can Mishter Lusk
Brevet ankom i en eske sammen med en del av en menneskenyre oppbevart i vin. Om det virkelig var Eddowes nyre er usikkert, datidens forensiske ekspertise kunne ikke stadfeste det med sikkerhet. Imidlertid er det sikkert at hvis det var en spøk, var det en gjennomført en.Jack må imidlertid allerede på det tidspunktet ha begynt planleggingen av det som skulle vise seg å være det siste trumfkortet. En PR suksess så vellykket at den ennå ikke er glemt.Dette er en post i flere deler, neste del finnes her